Glen Rainsbury joins Ticketek as GM
Industry veteran Glen Rainsbury has joined Ticketek as general manager for Australia and New Zealand.
Rainsbury, who will be based in Melbourne, brings a wealth of experience to the role that includes senior positions at the Chelsea Flower Show, Brisbane Entertainment Centre, Brisbane Cricket Ground (The Gabba) and Etihad Stadium (now Marvel Stadium) in Melbourne. In recent years, he has held executive roles with both Live Nation and Frontier Touring, and in 2020 helped coordinate the work of the new Live Entertainment Industry Forum, for which he was named one of IQ’s Unsung Heroes.
He was most recently director of venue strategy and business development for AEG-aligned promoter Frontier Touring.
Rainsbury joins alongside another new hire for Ticketek parent TEG, which has also appointed Lee Jones to the role of director of ticketing solutions. Both Rainsbury and Jones will report to Cameron Hoy, TEG’s CCO and managing director of ticketing.
“Glen’s CV gives him a 360-degree view of the live entertainment sector, [which] makes him a great fit for this new role”
“Glen’s CV gives him a 360-degree view of the live entertainment sector. It makes him a great fit for this new role, which is key to Ticketek’s strategy to ensure we continue to lead the industry with an enhanced operated model as our industry emerges from Covid-19,” says Hoy.
“I am thrilled that Lee is leading our ticketing solutions team to ensure the full breadth of Ticketek’s technology and capability is deployed and leveraged for the benefit of our partners globally. Lee’s experience in ticketing strategy and solution design is unequalled in our industry.”
Geoff Jones, CEO of TEG, adds: “Glen’s extensive experience, dedication and attention to detail make him a great addition to Cam’s team as we continue to roll out TEG’s integrated model.
“Lee’s commitment to delivering excellence to our partners is second to none, we are thrilled she is stepping into this vital new role.”
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Australia’s TEG reshuffles senior management
Sydney-based live entertainment group TEG has announced a management restructure it says positions the company for the long-term “global expansion of its integrated business model”.
The concert promotion, ticketing and technology firm, which has offices in Australia, New Zealand, south-east Asia and the UK (following the acquisition of the MJR Group last year), has appointed Cameron Hoy to the new combined role of chief commercial officer and managing director of ticketing, taking on oversight of TEG Analytics, TEG Insights and TEG Digital, as well as all TEG’s ticketing operations globally.
Elsewhere, experienced international executive and strategy consultant Ian Ball has joined TEG as chief operating officer (COO). Ball will will oversee all operations, technology, IT, communications and corporate affairs functions, and lead TEG’s venues worldwide.
“This is an evolutionary, fit-for-purpose restructure which is all about making sure we are streamlined for global growth in the longer term, as we battle the challenges posed by Covid-19,” says TEG CEO Geoff Jones.
“This is an evolutionary, fit-for-purpose restructure which is all about making sure we are streamlined for global growth”
“It aligns our businesses in the right way and brings in additional senior talent as we continue to evolve our integrated model.
“I am delighted to appoint my long-time colleague Cam Hoy to this critical role for TEG going forward. With his proven track record, Cam is the ideal executive to lead our increasingly global ticketing operations and aggregate our Analytics, Insights, Digital and commercial businesses to maximum effect for TEG and our partners.”
Hoy was previously TEG’s COO and head of ticketing, while Ball was most recently CEO of professional services firm Cardno. He is also a former operating partner of Silver Lake, which acquired TEG late last year.
“Ian brings a wealth of global experience to our company, which will be invaluable as we look to extend our technology leadership and expand our integrated model globally,” adds Jones.
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Ticketmaster expands to Singapore, Taiwan
Ticketing giant Ticketmaster is expanding into Asia, establishing a presence in Taiwan and Singapore.
The move, which sees Ticketmaster acquire Taiwanese ticketer Tixcraft and open a Singaporean branch, brings the company’s operations to 32 countries worldwide.
As a result of the expansion, Chad Phillips, former managing director for ApacTic, has been appointed to the newly created role of managing director of Ticketmaster Asia.
The launch of Ticketmaster Singapore following the company’s selection as one of three ticketing partners for Singaporean sports and entertainment complex, Sports Hub, late last year, along with TEG’s Ticketek and Sistic.
Sports Hub incorporates the 55,000 capacity National Stadium and a 12,000 capacity indoor stadium, which serve as the main venues for concerts in Singapore, hosting acts including U2 and Mayday, along with a 3,000 capacity arena and other facilities.
In Taiwan, Ticketmaster takes control of concert ticketing platform Tixcraft, which works with promoters such as Live Nation Taiwan, B’in and iMe Taiwan. Tixcraft founder and managing director KT Chiu will stay on at the company, serving as Ticketmaster Taiwan MD.
“The live entertainment industry across Asia has seen some immense growth and right now is the perfect time to welcome Ticketmaster to Taiwan and Singapore”
“By acquiring market leaders Tixcraft in Taiwan and launching in Singapore, we have established two great bases with talented teams to support the bourgeoning live entertainment scene in Asia,” comments Ticketmaster International president Mark Yovich.
“We are introducing greater levels of service and choice to event organisers across the region and can now provide fans with seamless access to our worldwide marketplace of events.”
Ticketmaster Asia MD Phillips adds: “Over recent years, the live entertainment industry across Asia has seen some immense growth and right now is the perfect time to welcome Ticketmaster to Taiwan and Singapore. I’m hugely excited to be joining the team and look forward to managing the rollout of the world’s most innovative ticketing marketplace.”
The launch of Ticketmaster in Taiwan and Singapore complements Live Nation’s existing concert promotions business across Asia Pacific.
In 2019, the company acquired Singaporean promoter One Production and PR Worldwide in Malaysia, while also making senior appointments to its growing business in China. In December last year, Live Nation Asia launched Live Nation Connects, a new creative marketing agency to connect brands to fans across Asia.
Read IQ’s analysis on consolidation within the ticketing sector here.
The decade in live: 2012
The start of a new year and, perhaps more significantly, a new decade is fast approaching – and while many may be thinking ahead to New Year’s Eve plans and well-meaning 2020 resolutions, IQ is casting its mind back to the most pivotal industry moments of the last ten years.
As in the previous 12 months, 2012 saw the live music industry still grappling with the effects of the global economic crisis, with many countries just beginning to clamber out of recession and others heading for dreaded ‘double dips’.
This continuing economic uncertainty naturally bit into the leisure spend of discriminating ticket buyers with a variety of entertainment options – though the world did not, as predicted by some long-dead Mexicans, come to an end.
Elsewhere, the weather gods interfered with yet more festivals, while Hurricane Sandy had a devastating effect on the industry in the New York area. In the UK, meanwhile, the Olympics scored on many levels, but provided far too much competition for many.
2012 in numbers
The top 50 worldwide tours grossed a combined US$3 billion in 2012, according to Pollstar, down around 2% from $3.07bn in 2011.
Madonna’s MDNA tour was the clear No1, grossing $296.1 million, ahead of second-placed Bruce Springsteen, whose E Street Band earned $210.2m. Both acts played to more than 2m fans worldwide 2012.
Roger Waters’ The Wall generated $186.4m to come in at No3, and was also the highest-ranking hold-over from the 2011 chart, where he placed No5 with a gross of $103.6 million.
Reflecting the lingering impact of the financial crisis, the total tickets sold by the top 50 tours was 34.9m, which continued the decline from 35.5m the previous year (and well off the pace from 2009, when the top 50 sold 45.3 million, says Pollstar).
2012 in brief
FKP Scorpio buys a stake in Utrecht-based booking agency and artist management company Friendly Fire.
Touring festival Big Day Out calls time on its New Zealand leg after promoter Ken West admits that falling audience numbers have made the Auckland show unviable.
Madonna sparks controversy when she tells Newsweek magazine fans should “work all year, scrape the money together” for a $300 ticket to her MDNA tour.
Private-equity firm CVC Asia Pacific puts its Australian ticketing company, Ticketek, and Sydney’s Allphones Arena up for a sale in a bid to reduce a A$2.7bn (€2.1bn) debt run-up by Nine Entertainment, which owns the assets.
Stuart Galbraith buys out AEG’s 50% stake in Kilimanjaro Live for an undisclosed sum. Both parties say they will continue to work together on events in future. (Kili later cancels the 2012 edition of Sonisphere at Knebworth, which was to have featured Kiss, Faith No More and Marilyn Manson.)
Ebay-owned secondary ticketing service, StubHub, launches operations in the UK and admits it is looking at further expansion across Europe.
Serbian authorities arrest the venue owner and other individuals following a fire at the Contrast nightclub in Novi Sad that leaves six people dead.
Tupac Shakur, who died 15 years previous, is the main talking point at Coachella, as a multimillion-dollar hologram of the rapper appears on stage alongside Dr Dre and Snoop Dogg.
Viagogo raises eyebrows by shifting its operational base from the UK to Switzerland, amid speculation it wants to resell tickets for the Olympic Games without falling foul of British law.
Investment firm Silver Lake Partners completes a transaction to acquire a 31% stake in William Morris Endeavor.
Former AEG Germany CEO Detlef Kornett forms a venue consultancy, Verescon, with DEAG with Peter Schwenkow.
Swedish telecom operator Tele2 pays an undisclosed sum to secure naming rights for Stockholm’s new 40,000-capacity stadium, operated by AEG.
Live Nation appoints former CAA exec David Zedeck to the role of executive VP and president of global talent and artist development.
Artists including Paul McCartney, Mike Oldfield, Dizzee Rascal and Emeli Sandé are each paid £1 for their performances at the Olympics opening ceremony. The show attracts 26.9m viewers in the UK alone, and billions more worldwide.
Three members of Russian punk band Pussy Riot are jailed for two years each, after staging an anti-Vladimir Putin protest in a Moscow cathedral.
AEG drops its claim against Lloyd’s of London on a multimillion-dollar insurance policy, following the death of Michael Jackson.
Glastonbury Festival takes just 100 minutes to sell out all 135,000 tickets for next summer’s event, despite not naming a single act on the 2013 bill.
C3 Presents extends an arrangement with Globo Organization’s GEO for more events in Brazil, following a successful Lollapalooza.
AEG is awarded the contract to take over shows at London’s prestigious Hyde Park, ending Live Nation’s decade-long relationship with the 80,000-capacity space.
Frank Barsalona, founder of Premier Talent, dies aged 74. Premier was the first agency to work exclusively with rock artists, with clients including the Yardbirds, Bruce Springsteen, Tom Petty, U2 and Van Halen.
The Wall Street Journal reports that a number of bidders are in contention to acquire AEG, despite a reported $10bn asking price.
Irving Azoff unexpectedly resigns as chairman of Live Nation and CEO of its Front Line Management Group, to concentrate on his own artist management company.
Who we lost
Notable industry deaths in 2012 included South by Southwest creative director Brent Grulke, Lasse Ollsen of Swedish promoter Viva Art Music, Jon Lord of Deep Purple, Armin Rahn, founder of Munich-based Armin Rahn Agency and Management, Radiohead drum tech Scott Johnson, Perth Arena general manager David Humphreys, R&B legend Etta James, pop powerhouse Whitney Houston, the Bee Gees’ Robin Gibb, disco diva Donna Summer, the Monkees’ Davy Jones and legendary agents Armin Rahm and Frank Barsalona.
Silver Lake eyes up potential TEG buy
US private-equity firm Silver Lake Partners is in talks to buy Australian live entertainment powerhouse TEG, according to a report by the Australian Financial Review.
Reports suggest that the California-based buyout specialist is in “late-stage talks” with TEG’s owner Affinity Equity and senior management team, led by CEO Geoff Jones, in a deal expected to surpass AUS$1 billion (US$675 million).
Silver Lake has over $43 billion in combined assets across a portfolio of tech-related businesses such as Alibaba, AMC, Dell Technologie and Tesla. The firm also has stakes in various live entertainment-related enterprises, including in WME parent company Endeavor, the Madison Square Garden Company, UFC and Oak View Group (OVG).
The firm is the not the first potential buyer to register interest in TEG over the past few years. In 2016, CTS Eventim and Chinese conglomerates Fosun and Wanda Group made up a trio of potential buyers in the running to acquire TEG.
Silver Lake has stakes in various live entertainment-related enterprises
The company also owns self-service ticketing platform Eventopia, promotion business TEG Live, concert promoter TEG Dainty – formerly Dainty Group –, data firm TEG Analytics and the AEG-Ogden-operated the Qudos Bank Arena (21,000-cap.) in Sydney.
TEG launched a new live family entertainment division, TEG Experiences, earlier this month.
IQ has contacted TEG for comment.
Major moves: consolidation sweeps the ticketing sector
The past 12 months have seen big-money deals by global firms who have been expanding their reach through buying up existing companies.
Eventim’s major expansion into the €800 million French live music market will see it establish a joint venture with the retailer by the end of 2019. Under the proposed new structure, Eventim would acquire 48% of France Billet, with an option to increase its holding to a majority stake over the next four years. It is folding its Eventim French business into the partnership, and the established brands – which in addition to Francebillet.com include Fnacspectacles.com and Billetreduc.com – will remain in operation.
This move will be a blow for Paris-headquartered multimedia conglomeration Vivendi, which owns the local company Digitick and was the third-largest competitor behind France Billet and Ticketmaster.
Leapfrogging its rivals, Eventim has secured the top position in the ticketing space. However, it currently does not have a promoter presence in France, unlike Live Nation or Vivendi, the latter of which owns the venues L’Olympia (1,996-cap.) and Theâtre de L’Œuvre (326-cap.) in Paris, as well as Olympia Production, the operator of a number of French festivals including Les Déferlantes (12,000-cap.) and Garorock (45,000-cap.).
In 2017-18, Eventim bought three significant promoters in Italy – Vertigo, Friends and Partners, and D’Alessandro e Galli (Di and Gi) – solidifying its brand TicketOne as the dominant ticketer in the country after Ticketmaster opened operations there in 2017.
On the other side of the world, Live Nation Entertainment’s (LNE) $480m decision to buy a 51% stake in Ocesa Entertainment, the largest promoter in Latin America, and owner of Ticketmaster Mexico, is noteworthy.
Promoting about 3,100 shows a year, Ocesa reportedly sold 3.8m tickets in 2018. Ticketmaster Mexico is comfortably the country’s biggest ticket seller, with around 37m tickets sold each year.
While LNE and Ocesa have had a long partnership, this move significantly enhances the global entertainment company’s footprint
While LNE and Ocesa have had a long partnership through touring, festivals and the Ticketmaster brand, this move significantly enhances the global entertainment company’s footprint.
It demonstrates LNE’s growing confidence in the Latin American market and will likely lead to an increasing number of tours by international talent to the continent, and potentially further acquisitions of promoters, ticketing companies or venues.
What impact it will have on Ticketmaster in the US, where the second language is Spanish, remains to be seen. The Spanish- language market in the US is arguably currently underserved, and this could be seen as an internal growth opportunity for the global behemoth.
But more importantly, this could be part of a wider move by LNE into Latin America, where the firm historically has no major presence. Last year it acquired one of Argentina’s top promoters, DF Entertainment, while earlier in 2018, it took a stake in one of the largest music festivals in the world, Rock in Rio (100,000-cap), recently increasing its holding to 60%, which could be a sign that Ticketmaster is preparing to make a move into Brazil. Does this indicate a strategy of expansion across the region? We’ll have to wait and see.
LNE-owned Ticketmaster also bought Australia and New Zealand’s most significant independent ticketing company, Moshtix, in February, further expanding its presence in a market where it competes fiercely with TEG’s Ticketek.
Although it’s not likely to shift the balance of power, Ticketmaster’s move will add another indie brand to its suite of ticketing platforms.
Meanwhile, TEG grew its Asian reach by buying the Philippines-based ticketing company TicketWorld. This adds to its existing interests in Malaysia, Hong Kong and Macau. As well as major international tours by the likes of Guns N’ Roses and Katy Perry, TicketWorld has a strong presence in the local theatre market, and provides ticket services to Philippines’ venues including Solaire Resort and Casino, Resorts World Manila, BGC Arts Center and the Cultural Center of the Philippines.
What we can say is that the last 12 months have seen no sign of the trend for consolidation slowing down – and it may just be hotting up even further
“We see great opportunities in many Asian markets and our strategy puts us on course to becoming a truly pan-Asian promoter,” said TEG CEO Geoff Jones at the time.
While not strictly new acquisitions, DEAG continued its policy of wholly owning companies by completing the purchase of the MyTicket platform, which going forward will be powered by the Secutix SaaS solution, while Eventim completed its takeover of German online movie ticketing platform Kinoheld and Scandinavian ticketing solution Venuepoint.
So what’s next? In the fast-moving world of ticketing, it’s hard to say.
India’s BookMyShow sells some 20m tickets a month, mainly in the cinema sector, but is looking to grow further into live entertainment. In 2018, COO of non-films at BookMyShow Albert Almeida told the Economic Times the firm wants to increase its revenues from non-cinema events from 30% to 50% by 2020.
It is one of the ticketing partners at the newly opened Coca-Cola Arena in Dubai and is addressing a lack of infrastructure in its home country by building its touring venues and producing its own shows. At a recent fundraising round, the company was valued at $1 billion, and there is still huge potential in the country of 1.3bn people. But maybe it will look to acquire in new markets, or further consolidate its position in the Middle East.
Another interesting area is the growing trend of Chinese companies taking an interest in Western music companies (for example, Tencent acquired a 10% stake in Universal Music, with an option to take another 10% in a year). Could we see a Chinese firm take an interest in a ticketing company outside of its homeland?
What we can say is that the last 12 months have seen no sign of the trend for consolidation slowing down – and it may just be hotting up even further.
For more insight into the state of the global ticketing industry, read IQ’s International Ticketing Yearbook 2019.
TEG launches live family entertainment arm
Australasian live entertainment powerhouse TEG has announced the creation of a new content division, TEG Experiences, bringing together its family entertainment, experiential and exhibitions businesses.
The division, a “new force in live family entertainment”, is part of TEG’s global growth strategy, following its recent acquisition of UK-based promoter and venue operator MJR Group.
Dustin Lockett will lead TEG Experiences as managing director. Lockett brings two decades of live entertainment experience to the role, previously serving as commercial director of BBC Studios ANZ and director of Seven West Media’s Red Live Events and Touring.
TEG chief executive Geoff Jones, who has worked with Lockett “several times before”, says he is the “perfect fit” to run TEG Experiences. Lockett will be based in Sydney and starts on 16 October.
Jones, who will produce the family content in partnership with global brands across Asia-Pacific, Europe and North America, comments: “TEG is Asia Pacific’s leading ticketing, live entertainment and technology business and now we are focused on becoming a global live entertainment business.
“TEG is Asia Pacific’s leading ticketing, live entertainment and technology business and now we are focused on becoming a global live entertainment business”
“The formation of TEG Experiences marks the next phase in that strategy. TEG is Australasia’s leader in live family entertainment and of the top three businesses of its kind globally in the fields of theatrical and experiential events. Now is the time for us to build on that position and pool our branded family entertainment assets.”
In addition to producing an array of new and alternative content, TEG Experiences will incorporate existing TEG divisions: live family entertainment show producer Life Like Touring, activation zone supplier the Entertainment Store and Lego-based installation creator Brickman Exhibitions.
Anton Berezin and Theresa Borg, who founded Life Like Touring and the Entertainment Store 20 years ago, are departing their roles as managing director and creative director of the divisions.
Borg will continue to work with TEG as a director and writer on future projects, while Berezin will seek a career as a performer.
TEG organises more than 200 live events a year through its owned promoters, TEG Dainty and TEG Live, and sells more than 28 million tickets annually via Ticketek, one of the ‘big two’ Australasian ticketing companies according to the International Ticketing Yearbook 2019.
Forum Melbourne to be first fully digital venue in Oz
Forum Melbourne (2,000-cap.) will be the first venue in Australia to adopt a fully mobile ticketing service, powered by Ticketmaster.
The partnership between Ticketmaster and Marriner Group will allow the venue operator to utilise the latest tool in Ticketmaster’s portfolio, offering fans an easy and secure ticketing system.
“Digital ticketing is the future and our partnership with Marriner Group is another step in our mission to put mobile first,” says Maria O’Connor, managing director of Ticketmaster Australia and New Zealand.
“Getting the technology live across all shows at the iconic Forum Melbourne is a huge milestone in this journey making fans lives easier,” adds O’Connor. “By replacing paper and print-at-home tickets we can speed up venue access, while also protecting venues against fraud and enhancing security overall.”
The launch of mobile ticketing at Forum Melbourne follows a successful roll out of digital tickets for the Harry Potter And The Cursed Child theatre shows at Marriner Group’s Princess Theatre in Melbourne.
“Getting the technology live across all shows at the iconic Forum Melbourne is a huge milestone in this journey making fans lives easier”
Speaking of the experience at Princess Theatre, Marriner Group director Kayely Marriner comments: “The platform is extremely user-friendly and convenient.”
The first events to go on sale at Forum Melbourne with 100% digital tickets will be shows for Maribou State, James Blake and Tycho, promoted by Secret Sounds.
“Innovating is critical to us here at Secret Sounds,” says co-chief executive. Paul Piticco. “A fully digital ticketing system means less scalping, safe and easy transfer to friends, and a better environmental outcome by not printing or producing tickets. We are in!”
As part of its digital ticketing service, Ticketmaster recently launched SafeTix in the United States. SafeTix issues tickets with encrypted, automatically refreshing barcodes, preventing duplication and allowing organisers to identify each attendee at their event.
Ticketek to launch price-capped ticket exchange
TEG, the parent company of leading Australasian ticket agency Ticketek, has announced the launch of Ticketek Marketplace, a price-capped ticket exchange for Australian consumers.
Ticketek Marketplace, set to go live later this month, will serve as an online portal to resell tickets previously purchased from Ticketek, with a single Ticketek user ID and login applying across both it and Ticketek’s primary platform.
The Ticketek announcement follows the launch of several similar solutions by its European cousins, including See Tickets’ Fan-to-Fan, CTS Eventim’s FanSALE, AXS’s Marketplace and, most recently, Ticketmaster’s upcoming replacement for Get Me In! and Seatwave.
Like FanSALE and AXS Marketplace, Ticketek Marketplace will cap resale prices at a maximum of 10% above face value.
“Many sports and entertainment fans have fallen victim of resale scalping practices based on highly inflated ticket prices, misleading marketing, a lack of transparency and often outright fraud,” says TEG CEO Geoff Jones (pictured).
“The launch of Ticketek Marketplace is another important step in protecting fans and ensuring the integrity of ticket transactions”
“TEG believes that fans want a secondary ticket marketplace they can trust, where the authenticity of tickets is guaranteed and where the prices are fair. Ticketek Marketplace delivers these requirements to fans.
“The launch of Ticketek Marketplace is another important step in protecting fans and ensuring the integrity of ticket transactions.”
According to the International Ticketing Yearbook 2018, Ticketek is, with Ticketmaster Australia, one of the ‘big two’ primary ticketing platforms in Australasia. TEG also owns promoters TEG Live and TEG Dainty, Qudos Bank Arena in Sydney and data firm TEG Analytics.
“We are delighted to offer a service for all events and fans through the launch of Ticketek Marketplace,” comments Ticketek Australia MD Cameron Hoy. “This is a consumer-led, price-capped and ethical ticket exchange service for fans with a genuine need to buy or sell on the secondary market.
“Over several years Ticketek has worked with industry bodies, venue partners, promoters and governments to educate fans about the dangers of resale scalpers. We commend the steps taken by state governments to legislate against these unscrupulous operators.”
Ticketek unveils its new event finder chatbot
Ticketek, Australia’s leading entertainment ticketing platform, has launched its own chatbot, Ticketek Event Finder, for Facebook Messenger. The company has a social media audience of more than 10 million.
The chatbot will allow users to browse and discover events, while also buying tickets for them, all from the same Facebook chat without having to leave the page, making the process of buying tickets easier and faster. Customers will also be able to receive customer service through searching frequently asked questions.
Geoff Jones, the CEO of parent company TEG, says the chatbot is the latest innovation under the company’s Ignition programme. “Ticketek Ignition opens our internal network and systems to enable multiple ticket purchasing experiences across multiple platforms and partner systems,” he explains. “The chatbot development is enabled by our real-time content APIs, which put Ticketek at the leading edge of customer engagement and multi-channel integration.”
“With the Ticketek chatbot it has never been easier to find, save and enquire about the latest events in Australian sports and entertainment”
“Best of all, he adds, the chatbot has come from a great collaboration with Facebook and [developer] Social House Media, on the back of consultation with our venue and event partners. With the Ticketek chatbot it has never been easier to find, save and enquire about the latest events in Australian sports and entertainment. This will offer a seamless customer experience and a new way to explore ticketing options.”
Ticketek is not the first ticket company to utilise chat chatbots, however: back in 2016 StubHub partnered with Skype to release the StubHub bot, and Facebook already released a chatbot with Live Nation last year.